Isomers

  • explore and distinguish the different types of structural isomers, including saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, including: (ACSCH035)
    • chain isomers
    • position isomers
    • functional group isomers

 

ISOMERS

  • Isomers are compounds which share the same molecular formula but different structure. There are three types of isomers to be explored in HSC Chemistry.

 

Chain isomers

  • Chain isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula, but different arrangement of its carbon chain (stem).
  • For example, pentane and 2-methyl butane are both alkanes with five carbon atoms and therefore the same molecular formula C5H12. Yet, they are different structural formulae.

 

 

Pentane (C5H12)

 

Methylbutane (C5H12)

 

Position isomers

  • Position isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula and functional group, but the position of the functional group is different.
  • For example, 1-butene and 2-butene both have the same molecular formula C4H8 but the position of the double bond is found in different positions.

 

1-butene (C4H8)

2-butene (C4H8)

 

Functional group isomers

  • Functional group isomers are molecules with the same molecular formula, but different functional groups.
  • There are three pairs of functional group isomers:

 

  • Ethers and alcohols

 

 

  • Ketones and aldehydes

 

 

  • Carboxylic acids and esters.